Technical Resources

Transportation Safety

Vision Zero

Vision Zero sets a target of zero roadway fatalities and serious injuries. It is a movement within the transportation profession with the goal of ensuring that safety is prioritized above other considerations, such as mobility, within a transportation system. At the core of Vision Zero is an embrace of the safe systems approach, a strategy of roadway safety management focusing on safety from all aspects of the roadway use experience, from design and operation, to driver behavior.

Vision Zero and the safe systems approach emphasize that some degree of roadway user error will always occur, and that such errors should not result in a fatality or serious injury. Thus, while the onus is on the roadway user (whether that is a driver, pedestrian, or bicyclist) to operate safely and within the rules and limitations of the roadway environment, the roadway itself must also be designed and operated to accommodate certain driver errors, and make any crashes that do occur survivable.

In practice, there is a strong emphasis on roadway design and operation that limits the kinematic impacts and stresses associated with any potential crashes, to those levels which are deemed survivable by the typical roadway user. Tactics such as speed management and traffic calming, physical separation of roadway users, and treatments that enhance visibility of vulnerable users to give drivers greater reaction time, all contribute to a portfolio of tools for ITE members to achieve Vision Zero within their communities.

For more information on Vision Zero, please visit the ITE Vision Zero Webpage.

Speed Management

Speed management is an important element associated with transportation safety and Vision Zero. Approximately one third of all roadway fatalities each year are at least partially caused by speeding-related factors. Proper speed management ensures that roadway users are operating at speeds that are safe and appropriate for the given roadway environment, and that certain types of vulnerable roadway users (e.g., pedestrians, bicyclists) are protected from unsafe conditions caused by vehicle speed.

Speed management is not just about setting speed limits. Proper speed management ensures that the proper speed limit is set for the proper context. Speed limit setting, traffic calming, speed studies and speed management are especially difficult in urban and suburban environments. Transportation professional should take advantage of the full depth of resources, tools and data collection techniques to provide a comprehensive speed management program, and help to eliminate speeding-related fatalities and serious injuries.

For critical resources and up-to-date information on speed management, ITE has created a Speed Management for Safety resource hub for use by all transportation professionals, whether in speed management or not. Also, check out the conversations in the Speed Management community portal and subscribe to the conversations by clicking here.

Speed Management Local Workshops

The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) and the Vision Zero Network (VZN) have selected two local communities, Austin, TX and Durham, NC, to participate in a one-day training workshop to help initiate and sustain a commitment to effectively managing speeds and improving safety for all users. The ITE and VZN Road to Zero Speed Management Training Workshop project is funded through a grant from the Road to Zero Coalition (https://www.nsc.org/road-safety/get-involved/road-to-zero).

The two selected communities will receive a one-day in-depth workshop with training on speed management as a means to reduce transportation-related fatalities and serious injuries as well as facilitated discussion focused on creating a speed management program in their community. The outcomes of the selected training workshops will be shared throughout the transportation profession and will become the framework for similar training workshops in other communities considering speed management programs and strategies.

Austin, Texas

The City of Austin Transportation Department has been selected to participate in an urban-focused workshop to develop a comprehensive speed management plan that implements resolutions previously recognized by elected officials and staff. In 2016, a City Resolution was passed identifying changes to state-enabling legislation, incorporation of target speeds in plans and manuals, evaluation of arterial street context, and implementation of neighborhood traffic calming as potential resolutions to speeds and safety in Austin.  The City of Austin has already adopted both Vision Zero and Complete Street policies.

The City of Austin has identified speeding as one of the final four human behaviors that contribute to crashes. There were 76 transportation-related fatalities and 410 serious injuries in Austin in 2017. Austin, TX is a community of 949,587 people with 3,300 miles of roads within the city limits.

Separated Bike Lane in Austin, TX
Credit: City of Austin

 

The workshop will be hosted in Austin, TX in February 2019 and a summary report will be released following the workshop.

Durham, North Carolina

The City of Durham Transportation Department will work with ITE and VZN to provide a workshop to assist the City in implementing a speed management program with focus on data driven decisions. In their application, City staff identified that a combination of high speeds and a common lack of mode separation infrastructure result in safety issues in Durham. The City of Durham would like a speed management program to include innovative traffic calming solutions that address speeding and increase safety without adversely affecting emergency response times.

Durham is a smaller city, with a population of 295,373 in 2016 and approximately 775 miles of roads to maintain. From 2015 to 2017, Durham had 91 fatalities and 224 serious injuries on their roads. The City of Durham determined 28 percent of all crashes are linked to speeding. The City of Durham has adopted a Vision Zero policy, and is in the process of adopting a Complete Streets policy.

Road diet project on West Club Boulevard in Durham
Credit: City of Durham

 

The Durham, NC workshop will be hosted in April 2019 and a summary report will be released after the workshop.

Speed Management National Workshop

The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) and the Vision Zero Network (VZN) hosted a National Workshop on November 8, 2018 in New York City, as part of the Vision Zero Cities Conference. Click the agenda and summary of the national workshop for more information.

Urban and Suburban Street Safety

Within the realm of transportation safety, urban and suburban contexts present certain unique challenges that must be considered. In high density, urban spaces, ensuring a safe roadway environment for all users can be problematic, due to the sheer number of competing needs (e.g., automobiles, delivery trucks, transit, pedestrians, bicyclists), and number of potential distractions for users (e.g., traffic signals, street signs, advertisements). However, low speeds in many dense urban environments often ensure that even when crashes do occur, that they are typically less in severity than in other contexts.

Suburban environments, by contrast, are especially challenging, due to their nature of blending elements of the rural and urban environments. Many suburban areas are built primarily with automobile use in mind, lending themselves to straight, wide roadways with high posted speed limits, and limited or no accommodations for pedestrians and bicyclists. Issues such as long blocks (which limit crossing opportunities for pedestrians), infrequent transit service, and single-use land development further inhibit access for non-motorized users within the community and can result in dangerous behaviors such as jaywalking. Moreover, the higher operating speeds of these suburban environments frequently lead to crashes with greater likelihood of fatalities and serious injuries.

ITE is committed to ensuring that roadway users can have access to safe transportation in rural, urban, and suburban environments alike. Within urban and suburban contexts, below are some of the resources which can be useful for transportation professionals in planning and programming for safety within their jurisdictions:

Rural Road Safety

Similar to planning for safety in urban and suburban environments, rural contexts present their own set of challenges. In many rural areas, speeds are higher, roads are narrower, and the potential for issues such as driver fatigue, extreme weather, and animal-related incidents is increased. Additionally, when crashes do occur, access to appropriate medical facilities is often much lower than in urban and suburban environments.

ITE recognizes the unique challenges that rural environments can present when it comes to safety and understand that transportation professionals in these areas often have limited funding and staffing to address safety issues. Below are some resources that can be used by professionals in rural areas to improve transportation safety:

Public Safety

Within the 4 E’s of transportation safety, “engineering” and “education” are two of the more traditional focuses for transportation engineers and planners. However, the importance of “enforcement” and “emergency responses” should not be understated, and both are critical elements of a successful roadway safety management program. The resources below describe two aspects of public safety resources that modern transportation professionals should consider.

  • Transportation Safety Advancement Group
    The Transportation Safety Advancement Group (TSAG) serves an important function on behalf of the US Department of Transportation (US DOT), Office of the Secretary of Transportation (OST), and its ITS-Joint Program Office, (ITS-JPO). Through its members and allied stakeholder groups, TSAG identifies surface transportation-based technologies and applications and promotes a national dialogue on public safety practitioners’ first hand experiences and corresponding best practices and lessons learned. Accordingly, TSAG looks toward a national transportation services Vision that fulfills a state of public safety such that: Public and transportation safety that is fully integrated and enabled through the use of technology. The Mission of TSAG is to identify and advance technologies to improve public safety response and efficacy in transportation systems and promotes transportation safety and efficiency in concert with the U.S. Department of Transportation Joint Program Office.
  • Traffic Incident Management
    Traffic incident management (TIM) is a planned and coordinated multi-disciplinary process to detect, respond, and clear incidents from roadways so that movement may be restored safely and quickly. Effective application of TIM strategies can reduce the impacts and duration of incidents and improve the safety of motorists and pedestrians, crash victims and emergency responders. The Federal Highway Administration offers an extensive set of resources and references through the site linked here.

Professional Development Courses

ITE offers a wide variety of professional development and training opportunities within transportation safety.

  • ITE Learning Hub
  • Road to Zero Coalition Grant: This is grant that was awarded to ITE in July 2018, focusing on speed management training in communities around the United States. Please stay tuned for additional information as it becomes available.

Safety Certification

The Transportation Professional Certification Board (TPCB) in collaboration with a wide array of transportation- and safety-related organizations in the United States and Canada announces the upcoming availability of a new Road Safety Professional (RSP) Certification beginning in October 2018. The goals of the RSP certifications are to recognize road safety as a profession, to establish a recognized level of practice and knowledge, and to incentivize safety education. More information about the RSP certification can be found here.