2009 - December
Retroreflectivity Degradation Trend of Preformed Patterned Tape Under Dry, Wet and Simulated Rain Conditions
By Xuedong Yan
2009 - November
Guidelines for Inclusion of Right-Turn
Traffic in Signal Warrant Study
By Ali A. Mozdbar, et al.
Supplementing Work Zone Crash Data
By Grady T. Carrick and Scott S. Washburn
2009 - October
Integrating ITS Technology with Roadway Reconstruction
By Nancy McKibben
Simulation of Beijing BRT Operation with Random Departure Time
By Xumei Chen
2009 - September
Simulation-Based Analysis for
Cape May County, NJ, USA
By Steven Chien, et al.
Estimating Vehicle Stops at Oversaturated Signalized Intersection
for Mixed Traffic Condition
By Md. Hadiuzzaman, et al.
2009 - August
Incident Detection with Traffic Sensors on Urban Highways
By Ryan Fries, Ph.D., P.E.,
Mashrur A. Chowdhury, Ph.D.,
P.E., Yongchang Ma, Ph.D. and
Anne E. Dunning, Ph.D.
Framework for Incorporating
Safety in Corridor Planning and
By Oleg Tonkonojenkov, M.Sc.,
Ph.D., Alireza Hadayeghi, P.Eng.,
Ph.D. (Candidate), and Brian
Malone, P.Eng., PTOE
2009 - July
Implementation of a Crash Records System Creates Advances Solutions at Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
By Mirza Rizwan Baig, P.E., PTP, PTOE, Benjamin Szeto, P.E., PTOE, and Wajahat Husain
What Do We Know about Signal Countdown Timers?
By Hongyung Chen, Huaguo Zhou, and Peter Hsu
2009 - June
Freeway Speed Stability Patterns Based on Instrumented Vehicle Data
By Jungwook Jun, Ph.D. and Randall Guensler, Ph.D.
This study discusses a potential safety/operation assessment measure of freeways based on the evaluation of a relationship between driving
speeds and speed stability patterns, given the wealth of dynamic driving speed data from a large fl eet of GPSinstrumented vehicles.
2009 - May
Travel Time Savings Benefit Analysis of the CFI Intersection: Is it Worth Implementing?
By Jumrus Pitaksringkarn
The continuous flow intersection has become increasingly popular and credible in recent years. Despite its unusual and unintuitive design, its implementation is beneficial to the reduction of traffic congestion. This study investigates whether it is always beneficial and worth the implementation.
2009 - April
Determining the Required Minimum Spacing Between Signalized Intersections and Bus-Bays
By Je-Jin Park and Tae-Jun Ha
Some of the bus stops currently installed in Korea are an insufficient distance from intersections, which causes traffic delays or conflicts.
2009 - March
Assessing Willingness to Pay to Use an Underground Car Park
By Luigi Dell’Olio, Angel Ibeas and Jose Luis Moura
This feature discusses modeling user parking behavior to determine willingness to pay (WTP) in exchange for quicker access to the final destination. The calculation of WTP is fundamental in the evaluation of any social and economic project.
2009 - February
The Challenge of the Oracle: Optimizing Transportation Infrastructure in a Changing World
By Stuart Ramsey, P.Eng. and J. David Hughes
This feature explores two options that respond to the rapidly approaching peak oil condition. These options focus on the reduction of activities that consume oil, the use of other energy sources and ways to improve efficiency.
2009 - January
A Sketch Method for Forecasting Intercity Passenger Rail Demand
By John S. Miller and Barclay F. Thorm
A five-step sketch-planning approach for forecasting intercity passenger rail demand was developed and applied to a proposed new passenger rail service. The approach used select elements of traditional urban travel demand forecasting including trip generation, trip distribution and a variation of mode choice.
2008 - December
Effects of Shorter Vehicle Extensions on Traffic Operations
By Jung-Taek Lee, Ph.D., PTOE, Randy Dittberner, P.E., PTOE and Hari Sripathi, P.E.
This article presents the effects of shorter vehicle extensions in an actuated signal system by using microscopic simulation for different traffic volume conditions. The analysis shows improvement in delay, travel time and average speed in low-volume conditions due to reduced vehicle extensions.
2008 - November
The Necessity of Understanding Temporal and Spatial Variations of Holiday Traffic
By Zhaobin Liu, Satish Sharma and Sandeep Datla
Rising standards of living and shorter working hours have led to significant increases in traffic volume during holiday periods. This feature systematically investigates the temporal and spatial variations of holiday traffic.
2008 - October
Highway Safety Management System Practices in Taiwan
By Kuang-Yang Kou, Ph.D.
A highway safety management system (SMS) is a decision-support process intended to assist decision-makers in selecting effective strategies to improve the efficiency and safety of transportation systems. The purpose of this study was to review and develop improvements to current SMS practices in Taiwan through partnership, funding, organization, uniformity, education and monitoring.
2008 - September
Parking Management Best Practices
By Todd Litman
Parking management refers to policies and programs that result in more efficient use of parking resources. This feature describes various parking management strategies and how to develop a parking management program suitable for a particular situation.
2008 - July
Liabilities of Public Agencies’ Intelligent Transportation Systems Projects
By Ryan Fries, Ph.D., Mashrur Chowdhury, Ph.D., P.E. and Harrison Trammel
This study identified the liability of transportation management agencies operating ITS. Many deployed technologies are relatively new, the public agencies that operate them face liability risks and information about this topic is scarce. Successful risk management can benefit state transportation agencies.
2008 - June
Practicing What We Preach: The Case for Evidence-Based Road Safety
By Gerry Forbes, P.Eng., PTOE
Traffic engineering practitioners make decisions that balance safety, performance and cost of the highway system. Practitioners demonstrate good engineering practice with the conscientious and judicious use of current best evidence in providing road safety for individuals, facilities and transportation systems.
2008 - May
Transit Station Design—Rider Preferences and Best Practices: Lessons from the American Southwest and Beyond
By Raj V. Ponnaluri, P.E., Celeste A. Gilman and Phil M. Klinkon
The Regional Transportation Commission of Southern Nevada undertook the development of prototype transit stations that can be easily adapted for use with different types of transit service. This feature summarizes key insights from the research.
2008 - March
Commercial Vehicle Driver Acceptance of Lane Departure Warning Systems
By Mohammed A. Hadi, Ph.D., P.E., Prasoon Sinha, P.E., PTOE, Joseph Schuerger, Ph.D. and John R. Easterling IV, P.E., PTOE
This paper discusses user acceptance and satisfaction with existing image processing-based lane departure warning systems in the United States. A survey of commercial vehicle drivers indicated a high level of satisfaction and acceptance. However, there appears to be a need for additional education of the benefits and use of the systems.
2008 - February
The Street Tree Effect and Driver Safety
By Jody Rosenblatt Naderi, Byoung Suk Kweon, Ph.D. and Praveen Maghelal
This feature investigates the effect of trees on perception of safety and driving speeds in urban or suburban settings. Individual driving speeds were significantly reduced in the suburban settings with trees.
2008 - January
Evacuation Station: The Use of Public Transportation in Emergency Management Planning
By Michael A. Schwartz and Todd A. Litman
This feature examines emergency transportation planning practices and the role that public transit can play. The analysis indicates that while public transportation often is used in emergency situations, there is rarely planning or coordination, leading to unnecessary confusion, inefficiency and risk.
2007 - December
Improving Welfare-to-Work Transportation Planning Through GIS in Miami, FL, USA
By Sylvan C. Jolibois Jr., Ph.D., Ayman Elbermawy and Pia Hansson
This study described in this feature examines the orientation of the Miami-Dade Transit (MDT) network using a GIS framework and determines whether or not participants in the Work and Gain Economic Self Sufficiency (WAGES) program can easily access MDT’s system for their employment needs.
2007 - November
A New Approach for Modeling Vehicle Delay at Isolated Signalized Intersections
By Yetis Sazi Murat, Ph.D.
Determining vehicle delay is a complex task, especially for over-saturated traffic conditions. This study considers the fuzzy logic approach for modeling vehicle delay at signalized intersections. The estimated delays obtained are compared with those in the Highway Capacity Manual, Akçelik’s methods and the real-world data collected at intersections.
2007 - October
Safety Belt Usage Characteristics in Trinidad
By Madaniyo Mutabazi
Safety belt usage in Trinidad has not increased since the introduction of safety belt laws in 1995. Understanding safety belt usage characteristics is essential to design programs to increase usage. Monitoring systems and the extension of laws to rear passengers, children and all vehicle classes are recommended to increase safety belt use.
2007 - September
Operational Effects of U-Turns on Four-Lane Divided Roadways
By Pan Liu, Ph.D., Jian John Lu, Ph.D., P.E. and Gary Sokolow
This study evaluated the operational effects of U-turns on four-lane divided roadways where drivers sometimes have limited physical space to make U-turns.
2007 - July
Balanced Road Space Allocation: A Comprehensive Approach
By Grahan Currie, Majid Sarvi, Ph.D. and William Young
A new methodology can assist road management authorities in making open, defendable and reliable decisions regarding the allocation of road space and time when providing priority to public transport.
2007 - May
Route Choice Characteristics of Truck Operators in Korea
By Chang-Ho Choi, Ph.D., P.E., Fazil T. Najafi, Ph.D, Jaehyun Choi and Jin-Lee Kim
This feature presents an evaluation of characteristics used by truck operators in Korea when choosing from three different types of roads—highway, expressway and private way—as their preferred route. The most significant factor was reliability of on-time arrival.
An Urban Management District’s Video Surveillance Approach to Transportation Management
By Mark C. Conway and Robert Taube
The Uptown Houston Development Authority implemented a wireless video traffic surveillance system that monitors critical intersections and thoroughfares. It has dramatically reduced response time to incidents.
El Paso, TX, USA’s Innovative Incident Management Plan
By Randy Schulze, P.E., PTOE, Edgar Fino, P.E. and Parind Oza
The development of an incident management plan for El Paso, TX, USA, demonstrated an unprecedented level of multi-agency cooperation. The plan boosts safe travel through the El Paso metropolitan area and reduces motorist delay due to roadway incidents by providing GIS-based identification and plan retrieval.
The Perception of Citizens Regarding the
Effectiveness of Lowering Speed Limits
By Frédérick Michaud, Marc-André Taché and Lynda Bellalite, Ph.D.
This feature evaluates the perception of citizens regarding the impact of reduced speed limits on the behavior of drivers. The study relied on a survey distributed to residents living in close proximity to roads with reduced speed limits.
Light Rail Transit Priority Using Programmable Logic Controllers
By Akhlaq Zafar, P.E. and Mitchell B. Downs, P.E.
In this feature, standard traffic controllers and off-the-shelf components provide partial priority to light rail trains running on a street with automotive traffic.
A Traffic Simulation for a Drive-Thru Pharmacy
By Hassan Abdelwahab, Ph.D., PTOE and Timothy D. Brown, E.I.T.
This feature presents a traffic study for drive-thru lanes of a pharmacy store. The primary objective was to compare traffic conditions before the addition of a second drive-thru lane to conditions experienced after the second lane became operational. A simulation model was developed to discover the best lane configuration that would significantly reduce queues and waiting times. Results of the simulation showed that the queue reduction from adding a second lane would be significant if the second lane is utilized as a full service lane.
Traffic Accident Data Analysis Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Based Software
By Jose V. Thommana
A GIS-based accident data organization and reporting software can manage accident records and assist in performing accident analysis and safety studies.
Engineers as Managers: Challenges Faced by Transportation Engineers in
By Reggie J. Chandra, Ph.D., P.E., PTOE and Mihai C. Bocarnea, Ph.D.
This qualitative study explores the challenges faced by transportation engineers as they transition to managerial positions.
Video and Global Positioning System Technology Use for Road Safety Analysis
By Michelle M. Porter, Ph.D., Jeannette Montufar, Ph.D., P.Eng. and Micah G. Melnyk
The use of in-vehicle video and GPS technology was explored to determine driver infractions related to road engineering. Infractions interpreted as engineering-related were compared to police-reported crashes along the route over a three-year period using GIS.
Crash Data and Deer Crossing Sign Installation
By Keith K. Knapp, P.E. and Xin Yi, E.I.T.
There is little evidence that quantitative policies for the installation of deer crossing signs exist. This feature suggests several basic safety data comparisons.
Characteristics of Traffic Accidents in Highway Work Zones
By Satish Mohan, Ph.D. and Wesley C. Zech, Ph.D.
An analysis of work zone accidents reported on NYSDOT construction projects established the predominant types and their relative severities and costs. The results are useful for highway practitioners to improve work zone traffic safety with a cost-effective perspective.
The Law of Centrality in a Sea of Parking
By Erik Ferguson
Building and/or activity center size may be constrained by the parking requirements necessary to adequately serve such facilities. A mathematical model describes this relationship in more rigorous fashion. Historical trends in shopping center size and parking requirements are used to illustrate the operation of the law.
The Potential for Real-Time Traffic Crash Prediction
By Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Ph.D., P.E., Anurag Pande, Liang Y. Hsia, P.E. and Fathy Abdalla, Ph.D.
This feature addresses the prediction of crash potential using real-time loop detector data. Historical crashes and corresponding archived data from loop detector stations surrounding crash locations were used.
Turn-On and Turn-Off Characteristics of Incandescent and Light-Emitting Diode Signal Modules
By Madhav V. Chitturi, Rahim F. Benekohal, Ph.D. and Montty Girianna, Ph.D.
Replacing incandescent traffic signal lights at intersections with LED modules is becoming more common. However, using LED modules from different manufacturers on the same intersection approach may create confusion for travelers and adversely affect traffic safety.
Evaluation of an Alternative Lighting System for Coastal Roadways
By Scott S. Washburn, Ph.D., P.E., Ralph D. Ellis Jr. and Ann L. Broadwell
The Florida DOT initiated a demonstration project using low-level roadside lighting fixtures and embedded pavement lights instead of overhead luminaires along a stretch of coastal roadway. This change was made in an effort to improve the survival rate of sea turtle hatchlings, which use natural light to guide their journey into the ocean.
Examining the Imputation Accuracy of Highway Agencies
By Ming Zhong and Satish Sharma, P.Eng.
Traffic engineers have practiced data imputation since traffic data programs were established in the 1930s. However, a literature review indicates that no research has been conducted to assess imputation accuracy. Typical methods used by highway agencies are statistically evaluated and compared. Study results might be useful for traffic engineers to re-examine their practices and implement more accurate imputations.
Build Your Own POST (Portable Overhead Surveillance Trailer)
By Carlos C. Sun, Ryan A. Pierce, Jason M. Sommerer and J. Eric Meyer
Portable overhead surveillance trailers can be deployed with minimum disruption to traffic and possess a range of traffic data collection capabilities. Two sample applications are presented involving an arterial and a freeway deployment.
Evaluating Traffic Signal Improvements Using Archived Transit AVL Data
By Robert L. Bertini, Ph.D., P.E., J. Cameron Glasgow and Jim Peters
The objective of this feature is to assess a new evaluation methodology for verification of benefits resulting from traffic signal timing improvements and signal coordination using routinely archived, automatically collected travel time data.
A Bicycle Transportation Primer: Dispelling the Myths and Promoting the Realities
By Lisa Aultman-Hall, Ph.D.
This feature outlines nine design and safety myths about bicycle transportation to spark transportation professionals to think critically about these myths and how existing research and standard traffic engineering principles contradict them.
Calculating the Size of a Distribution Park by the Space-Time Consumption Method
By Cheng Shidong, Liu Xiaoming and Rong Jian
This feature describes a mathematical model developed to determine the optical size of a distribution park. The model takes into account not only the space and time of the freight but other factors such as time variation. It was successfully applied to calculate the sizes of all the distribution parks in Beijing, China.
System Safety Reviews: A New Concept in Road Safety Engineering for Truck Operations
By Jeannette Montufar, Ph.D., P.Eng.
System safety reviews help evaluate the implications of a decision involving different alternatives for heavy truck operations.
Testing Wet and Dry Pavement Markings
By Jay K. Lindly, Ph.D., P.E., Ravindra K. Wijesundera, Kalyan Yellapu and Gautam Mistry
The Alabama DOT sponsored pavement marking retroreflectivity tests to compare retroreflectivity values of flat and profiled thermoplastic pavement markings in wet and dry conditions.
Implementing Priced Freeway Networks in Metropolitan Areas: Benefits and Prospects
By Patrick DeCorla-Souza, AICP
Some transportation experts have envisioned future metropolitan freeway networks involving two levels of service. This feature presents the economic rationale for public acceptance of such a dual system using two alternative strategies.
Impacts of Changing to a Towaway Crash-Reporting Threshold to Site Problem Identification
By J.K. Lacy, P.E., Charles V. Zegeer, P.E., Robert J. Schneider, AICP and Ronald C. Pfefer, P.E.
Converting to a towaway-reporting threshold eliminates most property-damage-only crashes from the databases available for analyzing crashes and recommending safety treatments. This feature assesses the impacts of changing the traditional North Carolina crash-reporting threshold to a towaway threshold.
Design Issues on High-Standard Bus Stops
By Rodrigo Fernández, Ph.D., C.Eng.
The objective of this feature is to establish some design characteristics for high-standard bus stops. A pilot simulation experiment in Santiago, Chile, consisted of evaluating one bus stop designed with the best quality standards and enough capacity to accommodate the actual number of stopping buses.
Learning About Highway Hazards with Internet Assistance
By Brian R. DeSalle, E.I.T. and Andrzej P. Tarko, Ph.D.
Agencies that collect motorist feedback about highway locations typically use telephone or mail-based collection systems. In this feature, a prototype Internet tool for Tippecanoe County, IN, USA, is presented and a pilot test of the prototype is discussed.
Trip Generator Relocation Impact Analysis Based on Household Surveys
By Martin Trepanier, Ph.D., P.Eng., Robert Chapleau, Ph.D., P.Eng., Bruno Allard,
P.Eng. and Catherine Morency, P.Eng.
In cities, the relocation or grouping of large trip generators impacts customers in terms of their trip habits and their use of transportation networks. A methodology based on household surveys using the totally disaggregate approach and on transportation object-oriented modeling is presented to tackle the issues of trip generator relocation in urban areas.
Results of a Regional Study on Tourism Trips in the Orlando, FL, USA, Urban Area
By Luis E. Diaz, P.E. and Susan Sadighi, P.E.
Tourists in central Florida, USA, have a major impact on the region’s economy and transportation system. However, transportation demand models do not accurately reflect this impact. Travel surveys were collected to help update the transportation model.
A Study of Bus Operations on Arterial Roads by Simulation
This feature describes and applies a simulation model to study the impact of the operation of certain elements on bus progression along a bus lane of an arterial road.
Concerns for High-Crash Locations
This feature reviews two
key statistical concerns in high-crash-locations analysis: Applying the
normal distribution with a low number of crashes and describing
Response Time of Unalerted Drivers at Signalized Intersections
An observational study was recently carried out
in Singapore that unobtrusively observed the behavior of unalerted
drivers responding to a change of the signal indication at road
intersections. The results from this study are reported and compared
with findings from similar studies.
Control of Closely Located Intersections: The U.S. 1 Busway Experience
Closely located intersections present special traffic control issues;
these are exacerbated if one of the intersections belongs to a busway.
Conditions for signalization are proposed.
Smart Growth with Transportation in Montgomery County, Maryland
feature describes how Montgomery County has been supporting smart growth
with transportation planning in this rapidly urbanizing area.
the Effect of Zoning Structure on Statewide Traffic Demand Estimates
In this feature, the authors describe the methodology and analysis
being used to develop a statewide traffic demand model for the Idaho
and Evaluations of Traffic-Controller Parameters: Force Off and Permissive
This feature focuses on the varied effects of the arterial
actuation-coordination parameters of force off and permissive periods.
2000 - February
Evaluating the Trade-Offs Between
Mobility and Air Quality
This feature shows how the frequent conflicts between highway and
air-quality advocates can be addressed in the evaluation process for metropolitan
transportation decision making using economic-analysis procedures.
Injuries on Residential Streets: Implications for Traffic Engineering
Because the nature of children prevents them from handling the demands of traffic, and
speed is a strong risk factor for child pedestrian injury, neighborhood streets need to be
designed to reduce traffic speeds.
for Signalized Intersection Approaches: Uniform Arrivals
The purpose of this study was to provide storage lengths for uniform arrivals on
signalized intersection approaches for any lane operated with separate phase control.
The Echelon Interchange
This feature presents a relatively unique concept for urban arterial highway interchanges
- the Echelon Interchange, given this name because of its symmetrical, but offset, pair of
two-phase one-way pair intersections, where one is elevated over the other.
1999 - May
Simulation to Improve Diversion Routes for Incident-Management Programs
This feature focuses on the use of available traffic-simulation software to
evaluate and improve the diversion routes used in an incident-management plan and presents
some of the methodological concepts that should be considered while evaluating such
Generation Characteristics of Free-Standing Discount Stores: A Case Study
The retail chain chosen for this study was fairly distinct in terms of annual
sales, expansion of existing stores, significant increase in new stores and variety of
merchandise sold. The authors present the collected and analyzed data from 18 Maryland
Parking Demand for Different Land Uses in Jordan
In Jordan in the last two decades, modern hotels, hospitals, large shopping centers,
housing buildings and office buildings were constructed. These land uses must provide
sufficient off-street parking facilities; otherwise, problems associated with on-street
parking will get worse, particularly in central business areas and along congested
1999 - February
A Discussion of Intelligent
Transportation Systems Environmental Impacts
Environmental impacts, including air quality, noise and energy, need to be
appropriately identified, understood and addressed for successful implementation of ITS.
Testing of a Windows-Based
Transportation Application: The LRSedit Experience
With more transportation application systems moving into the Windows environment, the
LRSedit testing experience demonstrates an effective approach to detecting errors and
malfunctions in Windows applications.
Trip Generation at Youth
Soccer Complexes: Some Unforeseen Issues
The Purdue Student Chapter of ITE helped the author collect trip generation data at
the two busiest youth soccer complexes in Indiana. The results are examined, and
suggestions for future data collection are offered.
Crash-Involvement Trends by Drivers Age in Florida
Recently Florida ranked third in fatal crashes and second in pedestrian fatalities in
the United States. Since these statistics are cause for concern, researchers examined data
to look for crash-involvement patterns.
1998 - November
Left-Turn Alternatives for Urban and Suburban Arterials - Part Two
The purpose of this two-part feature was to present unconventional
alternatives for arterials which, under certain circumstances, move traffic more
efficiently than conventional arterials with fewer negative impacts than widening,
bypasses, or interchanges.
Sight Distance Needs for Passing Trucks on Upgrades
A special case of passing maneuvers needs to be considered when a passenger
car is trailing a truck and both have to accelerate on an upgrade from zero speed.
Traffic Safety: Thinking Outside the Box
The traffic-engineering community can accomplish safety goals by working
with transportation planners, emergency-response agencies, health-care personnel,
enforcement personnel and education personnel.
A GIS-T Model
for Incremental Site Traffic Impact Analysis
The objective of the GIS-T procedure is to develop a more efficient, yet
understandable, means by which the traffic impacts of a new or expanded development can be
1998 - August
Cycling in a
Medium-Sized Australian City
Based on a qualitative study conducted at James Cook University, programs
in bike-route and technology development are recommended.
of Sample Sizes for Travel Time Studies
Existing procedures to estimate minimum sample sizes for travel time
studies are examined; new tables are provided for estimating sample sizes based upon a
larger selection of confidence intervals.
An Overview of
Red-Light Surveillance Cameras in Singapore
Unmanned, red-light surveillance camera systems help to reduce accident
counts at intersections.
Highway Vertical Alignment Using Profile Field Data
Presented is an analytical method for establishing the vertical alignment
of a highway section using profile field data which greatly reduces the time and effort
required for vertical alignment preparation.
A Systems Approach Pilot Survey of Acceptability by Freeway Users
Observations on user preferences and expected change in travel behavior
due to traffic control measures will be beneficial to traffic operators in setting
operating strategies for ramp metering systems.
1998 - May
Forecasting Models for Rural Desert Towns
The process of developing linear and multiplicative traffic volume
forecasting models for desert rural roads in Jordan will be discussed. One model will be
recommended for practical applications.
Satellite-based Taxi Tracking and Booking System
Major functions, advantages and limitations of a new satellite-based
tracking and booking system for taxis in Singapore are presented.
Housing Trip Generation Study
Study results found that military household trip generation rates were
lower than conventional households. Supporting evidence will be presented.
SCOOT: Traffic Adaptive Control Operation
SCOOT (Split Cycle Offset Optimization Technique) represents a significant
advancement in traffic adaptive control by a major traffic system operator in North
America. The authors present the results of the system evaluation and benefit/cost
Programming Optimization of Actuated Signal Timings under Oversaturated Conditions
A method that applies queuing theory analysis and mathematical
approximation techniques to formulate the signal timing problem for oversaturated
intersections as a linear programming model is presented.
Store Trip Generation
New variables for trip generation estimation, such as adjacent road traffic
volumes, dwelling units in the market area and competition with other development, are